Gramazio Kohler Research
Open Positions
Compas FAB
Compas Timber
AIXD: AI-eXtended Design
AI-Augmented Architectural Design
Impact Printing
Human-Machine Collaboration
AR Timber Assemblies
Architectural Design with Conditional Autoencoders
Integrated 3D Printed Facade
Think Earth SP7
Robotic Plaster Spraying
Additive Manufactured Facade
Timber Assembly with Distributed Architectural Robotics
Eggshell Benches
Autonomous Dry Stone
Data Driven Acoustic Design
Mesh Mould Prefabrication
Data Science Enabled Acoustic Design
Thin Folded Concrete Structures
Adaptive Detailing
Deep Timber
Robotic Fabrication Simulation for Spatial Structures
Jammed Architectural Structures
Digital Ceramics
On-site Robotic Construction
Mesh Mould Metal
Smart Dynamic Casting and Prefabrication
Spatial Timber Assemblies
Robotic Lightweight Structures
Mesh Mould and In situ Fabricator
Complex Timber Structures
Spatial Wire Cutting
Robotic Integral Attachment
Mobile Robotic Tiling
YOUR Software Environment
Aerial Construction
Smart Dynamic Casting
Topology Optimization
Mesh Mould
Acoustic Bricks
Additive processes
Room acoustics

Craft-specific user interface

Diagram describing possible decision making–sensing / actuation processes between a human operator and maschinic/robotic unit

Human-machine collaboration in computational design and robotic fabrication, ETH Zürich, 2018-2022
PhD research project
The aim of this research is to explore and implement human-machine collaborative strategies in architecture, digital design, and robotic fabrication by combining implicit human knowledge with explicit decision-making processes of automated systems. It focuses on novel human-augmentation strategies and tools needed for human-machine collaboration to perform non-standard fabrication tasks at a full architectural scale. This project investigates how humans' cognitive abilities and tacit knowledge can augment the precision, immediacy, and speed of machine agents to enable otherwise impossible or unsustainable tasks.

Augmented Bricklaying:
As a first case study, a complex brick-building facade for a winery in Greece is being constructed through augmented manual bricklaying using key principles of this research.
More info:
>Weblink to project page

Robot see robot do:
The second case study explores the potential of human-robot collaboration for the in-place assembly of complex building wooden structures by using a custom-made object-aware mobile AR interface.
More info:
>Weblink to GitHub page

IRoP - interactive robotic plastering:
The third case study is a system enabling designers and skilled workers to engage intuitively with an in-situ robotic plastering process. The research combines interactive design tools, an augmented reality interface, and a robotic spraying system.
More info:
>Weblink to project page

Extended Reality Collaboration(ERC):
The fourth case study presents a mixed-reality immersive collaboration system that enables bi-directional communication and data exchange between on-site and off-site users, mutually accessing a digital twin. Extended Reality Collaboration (ERC) allows building site information to inform design decisions and new design iterations to be momentarily visualized and evaluated on-site.


Augmented Bricklaying: Human-machine interaction for in situ assembly of complex brickwork using object-aware augmented reality

Prototype as Artefact: Design Tool for Open-ended Collaborative Assembly Processes

Interactive Robotic Plastering: Augmented Interactive Design and Fabrication for On-site Robotic Plastering

Robotic on-site adaptive thin-layer printing: Challenges and workflow for design and fabrication of bespoke cementitious plasterwork at full architectural scale

Extended Reality Collaboration: Virtual and Mixed Reality System for Collaborative Design and Holographic-Assisted On-site Fabrication

Gramazio Kohler Research, ETH Zurich

Daniela Mitterberger (Projektleitung)

Augmented Bricklaying:
Dr. Kathrin Dörfler, Dr. Timothy Sandy (, Dr. Tobias Bonwetsch (ROB Technologies AG), Foteini Salveridou, Lefteris Kotsonis, Lukas Stadelmann

Robot see robot do:
Dr. Kathrin Dörfler, Lidia Atanasova, Dr. Timothy Sandy (

IRoP - interactive robotic plastering:
Selen Ercan Jenny, Ena Lloret-Fritschi, Lauren Vasey, Petrus Aejmelaeus-Lindström, Eliott Sounigo, Ping-Hsun Tsai, David Jenny

ERC - Extended reality system:
Evgenia-Makrina Angela, Foteini Salveridou, Romana Rust, Lauren Vasey
Copyright 2024, Gramazio Kohler Research, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Gramazio Kohler Research
Chair of Architecture and Digital Fabrication
ETH Zürich HIB E 43
Stefano-Franscini Platz 1 / CH-8093 Zurich

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